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On the S side facing the Curia, orators addressed the people from a tribune which, from 338 B. with a black marble pavement, the so-called Lapis Niger, their original meaning was already unknown; they were believed to belong to a tomb of Romulus or his foster father Faustulus or of Hostus Hostilius, the father of King Tullus. next to the Temple of Concord, has also entirely disappeared.
C., took the name of Rostra from the beaks of captured ships with which it was decorated. There are other early monuments in the Forum connected with the legendary history of the Roman kings: e.g., the Lacus Curtius, the plinth of a puteal marking the spot where, during the battle between Latins and Sabines, the horse of the Sabine leader Mettius Curtius stumbled into a swamp and thus brought the fight to a halt. On the S side behind the Tabernae Veteres, the censor Ti.
To the left of the Rostra stood a group of archaic monuments: a four-sided stele that carries the oldest Latin inscription, the stump of a conical column, and the foundation of a sacellum with tufa bases for statues of recumbent lions. On the same occasion Romulus is said to have vowed a temple to Iupiter Stator, which he built on the Velia. After centuries of primitive village civilization, Rome, from the 6th c. C., developed rapidly into a town assimilating building types that were introduced from Etruria. the kings of Rome were of Etruscan origin, and the archaeological evidence from the towns and cemeteries around Rome confirms the priority of Etruscan culture. the Temple of Saturn was dedicated at the SW corner of the square replacing an earlier Fanum Saturni which, together with the Volcanal, had closed the W side before. the building of basilicas emphasized the monumental character of the Forum. Sempronius Gracchus erected in 170 the Basilica Sempronia on the site previously occupied by the house of Scipio Africanus, remains of which have been discovered under the Basilica Iulia.
The remains immediately SE of the Arch of Titus belong to a reconstruction of the temple by the consul M. Thus the Forum Romanum, after having been established as the civic center of the town, soon became an architecturally closed space. At the SE corner a temple was consecrated, in 484 B. Nothing is left of the Basilica Porcia erected in 184 B. next to the Curia Hostilia and burned down together with it in 52 B. On the opposite long side of the Forum, the Basilica Aemilia was erected in 179 B.
On the S side, the Basilica Sempronia was replaced by the Basilica Iulia, begun in 54 B. For its construction the Tabernae Veteres were removed. One of the column bases decorated with reliefs is still extant and the foundations of all five columns were excavated in 1959.